Thyroid Disorders

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Thyroid Disorders

Thyroid gland, is one of the largest of the endocrine glands which secretes two major hormones, thyroxin and triiodothyronine, commonly called T4 and T3 acting through nuclear receptors, these hormones play a critical role in cell differentiation and baby development in pregnant women and help to regulate the rate of metabolism and affect the growth and function of many other systems in the adult.

Autoimmune disorders of the thyroid gland can either stimulate the overproduction of thyroid hormones (Hyperthyroidism) or cause glandular destruction and hormone deficiency (Hypothyroidism).

In addition, benign nodules and various forms of thyroid cancer are relatively common and amenable to detection by physical examination and further investigation.

HYPOTHYROIDISM:

A condition in which the thyroid gland does not produce enough thyroid hormone is Hypothyroidism. It is the most commonly affected in female compare to male. Hypothyroidism may be divided into two categories:

  • Primary Hypothyroidism: Generally hypothyroidism occurs due to a problem in the thyroid gland itself, in which the gland produces much less thyroid hormones than normal.
  • Secondary Hypothyroidism: In a few cases, hypothyroidism may also result due to a problem in the hypothalamus or the pituitary rather than the thyroid itself.

CAUSES:

Stress and hypothyroidism When a person is undergoing stressful events - even "everyday" stress - the body produces a chemical called cortisol. Cortisol is one of two main hormones produced by the adrenal glands and it is necessary and beneficial to the body to handle long-term stress. However, when a person consistently and continually undergoes stressful events the affects of stress on the body is as follows.

The endocrine system is a system that works on body harmony to defend the body against stress. This system is comprised of the following glands: the hypothalamus, pineal and pituitary glands (all located in the brain), the thyroid and parathyroid glands located in the neck region, the adrenal glands located above the kidneys, and the reproductive glands which include ovaries in women and testes in men. When one part of this system is affected then other parts of the system begin to fail in order to compensate and meeting the needs of the endocrine system- this imbalance in the endocrine system produces the illness/disease like Hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism etc respectively.

Hashimoto's thyroiditis (an autoimmune disorder where the body's own immune system starts attacking the thyroid tissue)

Severe iodine deficiency - resulting in a reduction in the production of thyroid hormones

Overtreatment for hyperthyroidism (overactive thyroid gland) - radiation therapy in cancers.

Symptoms:

  • Most common symptoms of hypothyroidism are weakness, lethargy and fatigue, weight gain despite poor appetite, hoarseness of voice, cold intolerance, constipation, excessive bleeding during menses, decreased heart rate and pulse, and sometimes high blood pressure.
  • Facial expression becomes dull, speech is slow, eyelids droop.
  • The person loses interest in work or environment (hence hypothyroidism may be mistaken for Depression)
  • Skin becomes dry, coarse, scaly and thick and nails become thin and brittle.
  • Hair becomes thinner, coarse, dry and lusterless.
  • There may be muscle cramps and stiffness, pain in joints and goiter (an abnormal swelling in the neck caused by an enlarged thyroid gland).
  • Mood swings, forgetfulness, slowed thinking and slow speech can also be presenting symptoms.
  • Severe form of hypothyroidism is known as Myxedema.
  • Severe form of hypothyroidism in infancy is known as Cretinism
HYPERTHYROIDISM

Hyperthyroidism is characterized by increased serum levels of free thyroid hormone i.e. serum T3 usually increases more than does T4, probably because of increased secretion of T3 as well as conversion of T4 to T3 in peripheral tissues. In some patients, only T3 is elevated (T3 toxicosis). T3 toxicosis may occur in any of the usual disorders that cause hyperthyroidism, including Graves' disease, multinodular goiter, and the autonomously functioning solitary thyroid nodule. If T3 toxicosis is untreated, the patient usually develops typical hyperthyroidism.

CAUSES:

Graves' disease, toxic adenoma, Plummer's disease (toxic multinodular goiter) and thyroiditis, are most common causes which leads to hyperthyroidism.

Graves disease- Normally, your immune system uses antibodies to help protect against viruses, bacteria and other foreign substances that invade your body. In Graves' disease antibodies mistakenly attack your thyroid and stimulate your thyroid to produce too much T-4, is the most common cause of hyperthyroidism.

Toxic multinodular goiter-Thyroid nodules usually represent benign (non-cancerous) lumps or tumors in the gland. These nodules sometimes produce excessive amounts of thyroid hormones. This condition is called "toxic nodular goiter.

Thyroiditis-Inflammation of the thyroid gland, called thyroiditis, can lead to the release of excess amounts of thyroid hormones that are normally stored in the gland.

SYMPTOMS

  • Thyrotoxicosis may cause unexplained weight loss, despite an enhanced appetite, due to the increased metabolic rate.
  • Weight gain occurs in 5% of patients, however, because of increased food intake.
  • Other prominent features include hyperactivity, nervousness, and irritability, ultimately leading to a sense of easy fatigability in some patients.
  • Insomnia and impaired concentration are common; apathetic thyrotoxicosis may be mistaken for depression in the elderly.
  • is a common finding.
  • Common neurologic manifestations include Fine tremor, hyperreflexia, muscle wasting, and proximal myopathy without fasciculation.
  • Common cardiovascular manifestation is sinus tachycardia, often associated with palpitations.
  • The skin is usually warm and moist, and the patient may complain of sweating and heat intolerance, particularly during warm weather. Palmar erythema, onycholysis, and, less commonly, pruritus, urticaria, and diffuse hyperpigmentation.
  • Hair texture may become fine, and a diffuse alopecia occurs in up to 40% of patients, persisting for months after restoration of euthyroidism.
  • Gastrointestinal transit time is decreased, leading to increased stool frequency, often with diarrhea and occasionally mild steatorrhea.
  • Women frequently experience oligomenorrhea or amenorrhea; in men there may be impaired sexual function and, gynecomastia.
Homeopathic Approach in Genetic Homoeopathy

Thyroid patients consult homeopathic physician in three different situations 1. Pre-hypothyroid state - Unexplained weight gain with a cluster of other symptoms. Blood test reveals normal or slightly increased TSH.
2. Hypothyroidism confirmed but not started allopathic medication
3. Hypothyroidism confirmed and already taking allopathic medication regularly In all above three cases we at Genetic Homeopathy follow most advance therapeutic methods in available in Homoeopathy that is Genetic Constitutional method. In this we are not simply looking into the symptoms of the Disease, but also looking deep into non-disease traits of the patient. Non-disease traits means the physical & mental tendencies of the individual which are not related to the disease. They are also called as Genetic tendencies of the particular individual. Some of commonly used medicines are calc iod, Natrum Mur, Sepia, Spong,Thyrodinum, Nat sulph, Phos, Merc sol should be taken under strict medical supervision.